Thursday, January 29, 2009

Jumping Robot 1

we will develop the jumping locomotion robot in this research.
This jumping robot can move around the disaster areas where there
are many high steps and obstacles that cannot overcome previous
walking robot, shown in Fig. 1. This developed jumping robot has
both high terrain adaptability and mobility.

Jumping Robot Prototype at Stanford

During the fabrication of the prototype we had to take into account
several restrictions on the weight and room of the components.
This constraints were imposed by the presence of the flight phase
in the jump.

The robot has two parallel frames, on the right and left hand side,
which are used to keep the motor, the cam shaft and the legs in
place (see picture). In this way it is easy to assembly and
dis-assembly the robot, and the cam and the legs have room to
rotate in the inner part of the robot. Shafts rigidly connecting
the two parallel frames keeps the whole robot firmly resistant
to impacts occurring at every step. This initially was one of
the main problem in making the prototype work, together
with the friction forces


Micro-Cricket Series Robots
Biomimetic research at Case Western Reserve University

Our cricket microrobot is being developed by an interdisciplinary
team of faculty and students as part of the DARPA Distributed
Robotics (DR) program. A "micro-robot" is no larger than
5 cm in any dimension. Our robot will locomote by both walking
and jumping and its design is based upon crickets.

Frightened Grasshopper Kit - Solar Powered

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

2 Legs Robot 4

Biped Robot (FKS1)
Redesign and built the sole and lower portion of the legs. I also
repositioned the legs so that the separation become smaller,
ensure better stability. Painted the machine to make it looks more
professional. All the electronics have now been ported to
surface-mounted components platform, thus reducing the overall
weigth. The machine can now walk continuosly, albeit a little bit
shaky at times. Nevertheless I have not installed any sensors yet.
In the process of selecting suitable sensors and designing the
electronic circuitry. Moreover I am also upgrading the Robot's
software in my spare time.

Biped robot research at MEL

Walk of Meltran II. One step is 12cm and average walking speed
is about 0.5km/h. The strategy of control is to keep body height
constant at every moment of walking. This makes walking control
simpler than former walking control algorithms.

Mech 1.0

The mechanical design process was completed with Solidworks,
designed with only shapes that I knew were simple to machine using
extruded metals obtainable at the local hardware stores. As you can
see there are no feet, yet, but the first programming challenge will be
to write the algorithms that control each servo actuator to implement
the walking cycle.

Development of a walking robot model and its data-based
modeling and control

Walking robots offer challenging problems in the field of system
modeling and control. The mechanical structures of the walkers
are usually complex, being composed of many joint-connected
parts which impact also with the surrounding environment.
Therefore the mathematical models easily appear to be highly
nonlinear and high-dimensional preventing the effective use of
traditional modeling and control methods.

Iron Man Walking Rc Robot and 2 Legs Robot Book

Sunday, January 25, 2009

2 Legs Robot 3

The framework of the robot is made of 3mm acryl-sheets where
the different parts got cut out. Alltogether there are 14 servos,
but only 12 degrees of freedom (DOF). In the hip, two servos per
leg are working together in one movement

Spring Turkey

Spring Turkey was designed and built by Peter Dilworth and Jerry
Pratt in 1994. It has an actuated hip and knee on each leg.
An unactuated boom constrains Spring Turkey's roll, yaw, and
lateral motion thereby reducing it to a two dimensional robot.
All of Spring Turkey's motors are located in its upper body, with
power being transmitted to the joints via cable drives. Series
Elastic Actuation is employed at each degree of freedom, allowing
for accurate application of torques and a high degree of shock
tolerance. The maximum torque that can be applied to the hips is
approximately 12 Nm while approximately 18 Nm can be applied
to the knees. The force control bandwidth we achieve is approximately
20 Hz. Spring Turkey weighs in at approximately 22 lbs (10 kg) and
stands 2 ft (60 cm) tall.


RunBotRunBot is a biomechatronic design. It has achieved a relative
walking speed of 3.5 leg-lengths per second, which is much faster
than the current world record of biped walking robots, 1.5 leg-lengths
per second, and is even comparable to the fastest relative speed of
human walking. Unlike other biped robots using various model-based
controllers, RunBot's mechanical structure is directly driven by
motor-neurons of its neuronal controller, which is analogous to what
happens in human and animals' walking. In summary, neural
computation and physical computation work together to generate
RunBot's fast and adaptive walking gaits.

Iron Man Walking Rc Robot and 2 Legs Robot Book

Thursday, January 22, 2009

2 Legs Robot 2

Bipedal Autonomous Robot BARt-UH

Each leg of BARt-UH is composed of three joints, the hip joint,
the knee and the ankle resulting for a total of six degrees of freedom
for the robot. The motion of BARt-UH is restricted to the sagittal
plane. BARt- UH is able to perform statically and dynamically stable
walking. The power supply for autonomous walking, as well as
the power circuits for driving the joints reside on top of the robot.

The UNH Biped Robot

The biped hardware developed at UNH is shown above. The goal
of the ongoing ARPA/ONR sponsored research is to develop
strategies for the control of static and dynamic balance during two
legged walking based on a hierarchy of simple gait oscillators,
PID controllers and neural network learning, but requiring no
detailed dynamic models.


LISA has twelve active degrees of freedom. All axes are actuated
by DC motors with harmonic drive gears and are equipped with
incremental encoders for the servo control feedback. Each leg has
two rotatory degrees of freedom (DOF) in the ankle, a revolute
joint in the knee and a ball-and-socket-like hip joint with three rotatory
DOF. The hip has been built as a spherical parallel manipulator
(see below). Thus, the legs are lightweight, quick and have nearly
the workspace (region of movability) of a human leg.

Monday, January 19, 2009

2 Legs Robot 1

Bipedal walking robot

The DOF is 10 at this point. Some kind of parallel link mechanism is
applied to the joint of the ankle. The shape of the contact to
the ground is changed from line to plane. The robot could get to walk
statically with this modification. But the servos are broken from over
load. It seems that the torque was not enough to support the weight
of the robot.

Bipedal Walking Robot Lucy

The goal of this project is to create a lightweight biped which is able
to walk in a dynamical stable way. The configuration of this biped is
anthropomorphic focusing on the lower walking part which is
composed of two articulated legs. The robot, all included, weighs
about 30 kg and is 150cm tall. This robot is restricted to move only
in the sagittal plane due to it’s one dimensional joints of which each
of them are powered by an antagonistic pair of Pleated Pneumatic
Artificial Muscles. These muscles are lightweight pneumatic actuators
which work at low pressures and can be directly coupled without
complex gearing mechanisms. The adaptable passive behaviour
of these actuators will be exploited in the walking algorithms.


NUSBIP is a lif-sized humanoid robot with 20 degrees-of-freedom
(DOFs) in total. It has 6 DOF on each leg and 5 DOF on each arm.
It was modelled after the size of a 10-year old child. This robot is
built to serve as a test bed for research on bipedal walking.


Iron Man Walking Rc Robot and 2 Legs Robot Book 

Saturday, January 17, 2009

Hexapod Robot Leg

Some Thoughts on Robot Leg Types

which incorporate a parallel link to keep the distal segment vertical,
the rigid link can be replaced with a spring. This will allow the link to
extend as the leg moves back, and contract again as it rotates past
the midpoint of the stride. Another possibility would be to make
the proximal leg segment compliant rather than the parallel link, but
I think this would be more difficult to construct. As in the higher
tetrapod leg type, the arthropod type functions pretty well even
without the compliant link. But under conditions where traction is
critical, such as climbing a slope, or on certain types of carpet,
I think the compliant link would really result in superior performance.
The biggest obstacle to implementing it is finding a spring with
the right characteristics for a robot of a given size and power.


We have used equivalent mechanical and electrical sensors on
the robot to mimic the information provided by the biological sensors
found in insects.

Hexapod Robot

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

4 Legs walking robot 4

Quadlator II

The quadruped robot Quadlator II has 4 legs, and total 12 joints.
It was made from aluminum, with total 17Kg weight. With
stretched posture, the length from hand-tip to foot tip is 1.26m.
The width of its shoulders is 0.38m. The length of each leg is
0.25m. It can walk in crawl gait at speed of 2m/min. There are
3 joints for each leg. and there isn't any foot-like mechanisms
(end-effectors). As well as walking, Quadlator II can also
stand on its knees like human being and performs some
operation with the 2 free hands.


Nico is a quadruped robot which is based upon principles
of 4-legged locomotion illustrated in nature. The background for
Nico's basic body plan and leg design can be found on
our page about locomotion in 4-legged creatures. The present
implementation is a greatly simplified form of nature's own plan,
but one which can still perform movements in a similar
manner. Nico's purpose is the study of various gait possibilities.


AMOS-WD02 (Advanced MObility Sensor-driven Walking Device)
is a simple platform for experiments with neural perception - action
systems. This walking machine has 4 legs, each with 2 degrees
of freedom, and one back joint referring to the morphology of
salamanders. In addition, this machine has IR-sensors and
auditory sensors for different reactive behaviour; e.g. obstacle
avoidance and sound tropism.

4 Legs walking robot

Sunday, January 11, 2009

4 Legs walking robot 3


we have started to develop a mobile robot which can play a role
as a mobile platform on the rugged and steep slope under
construction. For the basic structure, we selected the walking style,
because it can avoid obstacles and the leg can be also used as
a powerful manipulator. And we adopted a quadruped, because
four is the minimum number of legs to achieve a statically stable walk.


The character of Hyperion is, first, that it has only 3 DOF and
is very light. Usually, a multipedal robot has 3DOF per leg, but
Hyperion uses the least DOF needed for static walk.
The first plan was to have 4 DOF, as shown in Fig


Leg-Wheel Hybrid Walking Vehicle
there are many studies about leg-wheel hybrid mobile robot
because walking robot has high terrain adaptability on irregular
ground but wheeled robot takes advantage of moving speed
on smooth terrain. In the past, active wheels were often used
for wheeled locomotion. However installation of active
wheels restricted walking machine's ability very much. Because
active wheels need actuators, brake mechanism and steering
mechanism. This equipment is so heavy and bulky that
it's not practical solution for walking robot which has many
degrees of freedom. Proposed hybrid mobile robot named
"Roller-Walker" is a vehicle with a special foot mechanism
which changes between feet soles for the walking mode and
passive wheels for the wheel. (Photo 2(a),(b)) Roller-Walker
can utilize the installed actuators for walking, so additional
weight is very light. The wheeled locomotion is based on the
same principle of roller-skating.


PROLERO is a PROtotype of LEgged ROver, also known as
WAlking RObot for Mars Applications (WAROMA). The concept
of WAROMA was developed in the ESA A&R group and a prototype
of it was built by PROLERO Industries (NL) on ESA contract.

Friday, January 09, 2009

4 Legs walking robot 2


Spyder is an 8 motor, 4 leged walking robot. It uses a 16 Nv network
with a 4 Nv loop, and four 3 Nv branches attached to each Nv of
the loop. It features 4 legs, which can lift and drop, as well as
extend and retract.

This is 4 legged walking robot with CCD camera on its head.
It has 3 D.O.F on each legs and 2 D.O.F on the head. The main
behaviors of the robot consist of walking and posing, such
as standing, bowing, sitting-on, streching, leaning, lifting a leg and
so on.


Quadruped Walking Robot for Outdoor Environments

In spite of rapid development in robotic technologies, living creatures
are still superior to robots existing currently in various aspects.
Thus, it is necessary to understand the principles underlying the
motions and behaviors of biological subjects for the control
of robots. Mimicking living creatures currently becomes one of the
worldwide trends for robotic innovations. It is considered as one of
the most adequate way of developing a robot since biological systems
provide a number of useful ideas concerning the control of robots.
Recently, robotic researchers as well as biologists propose
innovative ideas for the control of the walking robot system.
Among several ideas, mimicking the rhythmic motion of animals
is one of the most promising ways to control the walking robot
system. By studying on this, the locomotion of the walking robot
can be close to that of the real animal.


Waltz is a 4 Legged Walking Robot that I have been working
on since 1995. The name Waltz came from the musical term of
the rythm of 3 beats over quater notes, since the robot has
3 servo motors on each of 4 legs.

Wednesday, January 07, 2009

4 Legs walking robot 1

4-legged spider

4-legged spider is gait was actually more like a shuffle.
Two legs moved at a time; the front and back reach forward
while the sides balance the robot, then the front and
leg balance while placeing the side legs forward.

SILO4 walking robot

The SILO4 is a compact, modular and robust robot of about
30 kg, which is capable of negotiating irregular terrain,
surmounting obstacles up to 250 millimetres tall and
carrying about 15 kilograms in payload at a maximum
velocity of about 1.5 meter per minute.

No CPU Walker

Type: 4 leg 2 motor walker
Purpose: proof of a concept
Controller: hardwired
Actuators: 2 motors from teddy ruxpin
Power source: 4 AA for motors
Operational description: two motors and two DPDT switches.
The motor drives the legs. When the legs reach the farthest
rotation they trip the DPDT switch which reverses the other motor.
The combination of motors and switches causes the cycle: motor 1

forward, motor 2 forward, motor 1 backward, motor 2 backward,
and repeat.
Future Enhancements/Plans: I plan to add a waist motor for steering.

Kinematics of 4 Legs walking robot

The robot has 4 legs each of which has 3 actuators, Figure 1.
The legs inverse kinematics allows for 2 positions of the knee joint:
backwards and forwards. For simplicity the trajectories that we
consider in the project do not assume a switch betwene
backward and forward knee positions.

4 Legs walking robot

Friday, January 02, 2009

Hexapod Robot 5

Hexapod Robot 18 RC servomotors

This is a hexapod robot powered by 18 RC servomotors.
The degree of freedom of each leg is 3. I built this robot to
study the control software for 6 legged locomotion.This robot
can walk toward every direction, but the maximum
speed of progress depends on the direction. This robot is
equipped with radio control transmitter and can accept
control by radio. In develop configuration, this robot is
connected to PC's parallel port and control from PC with
umbilical cable.

The Autonomous/RC crawling 6 legged robot

Prototyping the Autonomous/RC crawling 6 legged robot with 14 RC servo
By Thomas Scherrer OZ2CPU.

Prototyping Folded Robots

Even with the SCM process, very small robots can be difficult to
design and build. Their size makes assembly challenging and the
inherent difficulty of designing a 3 dimensional folded robot in
a 2 dimensional drawing also slows the process. To avoid costly
errors in the early stages of design when many ideas will be tested
and discarded, we created a scaled analog to the SCM process
using commonly available materials. This scaled process lets the
folded robot designer go from a design on paper to a functional
scaled prototype in as little as 20 minutes. Rapid iteration alleviates
the risk of committing to a design and fabricating at the small scale
too soon. Instead, the designer is free to explore a variety of ideas
at the larger scale, discarding the unsuccessful attempts and rapidly
integrating lessons learned in the process to produce a design that is
much more likely to succeed at the small scale.

Robot I

Robot I was the group's first project. The robot has six two degree of
freedom legs powered by 2 Watt DC motors that permitted straight line
locomotion on flat terrain. It was initially constructed to test a biologically-
inspired neural network controller developed by R. D. Beer and H. J. Chiel
for a computer simulated insect. With the stimulation of a single command
neuron, the network generated a range of insect-like gaits. The controller
also proved to be robust to perturbations